What is cancer? Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Prevention

What is cancer?

Cancer is a dreadful disease in which tissues divide abnormally and take up the nutrition of other tissues. There are two types of tumours in body first is Benign tumour and other is malignant tumour. A benign tumor does not divide abnormally, and they remain confined to their place, but malignant tumors divide abnormally.

There are many symptoms and other complications that are seen in the condition of Cancer. Most of the time patients lose hope for life when they are detected with cancer. And this is the most prominent reason why they lose their life. There are many rumours that are responsible for an unhealthy mind, in the next sections, we will talk about them.

 What is Cancer? 

Cancer is an abnormal growth of body tissue that takes abnormal nutrition of other body cells. Cancer may also be caused by some genetic reasons, and it is characterized by uncontrolled growth. It is considered a complex group of diseases, and the reason can be genetic or environmental factors.

Cancer Development process
Diagram showing cancer development process illustration

Types of cancer

Based on the location and their origination cancer has many types they are more than 100. Their basic classification also depends on the tissue or organ from where they originated. Special for the female body these are:

  1. Breast Cancer
  2. Uterus Cancer
  3. Urogenital tract cancer
  4. Ovarian Cancer

Specifically, which occurs in the male body:

  1. Prostrate Cancer
  2. Genital cancer

Other cancers are common in both male and female bodies:

  1. Pancreatic cancer
  2. Thyroid cancer
  3. Ling cancer
  4. Colorectal cancer
  5. Skin cancer
  6. Lymphomas (lymphatic system cancer)
  7. Sarcomas
  8. Leukaemia (blood cancer)
  9. Kangri cancer

All these cancers originate from different tissues of the body and some of them specifically show a group of cancers.

Also Read :- What You Can Do To Raise Cancer Awareness At Work

Symptoms of Cancer

There are many symptoms of cancer but most of them are common.

  • Bleeding from gums and urinary bleeding is seen.
  • Floating for a long time (more than 3 weeks)
  • Coughing with chest pain and difficulty in breathing.
  • Changes in bowel habits and constipation with pain.
  • Sudden moles in the skin with uneven tone.
  • Weight loss
  • Calf muscles and lower abdominal pain
  • More acidity with indigestion
  • Red patches on the skin without any reason
  • Yellowish skin with discomfort in the stomach.

Causes of Cancer

There are various reasons for the cancer in the body and sometimes based on environmental and genetic reasons they affect more than one part of the body.

  1. Infections – There are some infections most of them are viral and they have the capability of causing cancer in the human body. The most common virus is human papillomavirus (HPV) and another name is helicobacter pylori, and HIV (human immune virus). Helicobacter can cause stomach cancer and HPV can cause cervical cancer.
  2. Genetic – There are also types of cancer that are more influenced by hereditary components in the body. There are some omitted genes like BRCA1 and BRCA2 having these genes in the body increases the chances of cancer.
  3. Environmental factors – There are some cancer-causing agents in the environment which are known as carcinogens.  These agents activate cancer genes in the body and oncogenes get suppressed. X-rays, gamma rays, UV radiation on exposure to normal tissue can cause cancer.
  4. Lifestyle – We can not say that lifestyle is completely responsible for dreadful diseases like cancer, but it can provoke such genes. Tobacco chewing, smoking, and excess alcohol consumption are responsible for lung cancer, oral cancer, and intestinal cancer. There is also a written warning about packets of tobacco.

Cancer diagnoses

Cancer can be diagnosed with various methods every type of method is not optimum for every cancer.

The Medical history of patient:

First, medical examination of blood and other related test are done. The doctors about the medical history of the patient and try to relate to the symptoms that are seen in the patient.


Biopsy is a common diagnosis for most cancers, and it is also a confirmation test for cancers. In case of doubt suspected tissue is taken from the organ and examined under the microscope.

Imaging test

This type of test is done for internal parts of the body and these tests can produce detailed images of the internal organ. These tests include X-rays, MRI, CT scans, ultrasound, etc.


Endoscopy is done for the internal organs of the body and in this technique a thin flexible tube is taken with camera its end. This tube can pass from hollow organs in the body and help to examine more elaborately.

Other tests

Many other tests can be done in response to the symptoms in the body. Some of the names are cytology test, pathology or molecular testing, bone marrow aspiration for bone cancers, gene testing, etc.

Treatment of Cancer

Most of the cancer treatment is done in a combination of chemotherapy, medicines, and surgery. It is a rare case where surgery is given to the patient because it is a risk to the life of the patient.

  • Therapies – In the therapy method various therapies are given some of Some are good for immune boosting and others are for reducing cancer. Common therapies are radiation therapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.
  • Surgery – Other sections include the surgical process, and these include careful removal of the affected tissue. Surgery is done mostly after chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments.
  • Medicine – Certain high-power drugs are given to cancer patient, and they are not allowed to be sold in the open without permission. These drugs include nelfinavir, ritonavir, indinavir.  


Genetic cancers and environmental cancers can’t be prevented but many cancers are affected and caused by the lifestyle that we are living in. We can prevent these cancers by following methods.

  1. Avoid tobacco chewing, snorting, and smoking in any form as it is very harmful, and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is found in tobacco leaves.
  2. Avoid alcohol usage in drinking form it can cause stomach and intestinal cancers.
  3. Maintain healthy diets and do regular exercise and yoga.
  4. Protection from UV rays and avoid more direct sunlight.
  5. Take vaccines for HPV and other viruses.
  6. Take regular screening sessions so that you can detect the proper time for getting coverage treatment.


Cancer is a group of complicated diseases that can not be treated easily. For diagnose of cancer there are many tests that and treatment can be done on time if detected in the early stage. You must contact a doctor in the early stages, for further guidance you can contact Dr. Satish Sharma, he will guide you further.


How is cancer treated?

Treatment depends on type and stage. Options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and hormone therapy.

Is cancer hereditary?

Some cancers have a genetic component, running in families. Genetic counseling and testing can help assess hereditary risk factors.

What is cancer?

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth. These abnormal cells can invade and damage surrounding tissues, potentially spreading to other parts of the body.